A Meta-Analysis on Prehypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease

Citation: Li Y, Xia P, Xu L, Wang Y, Chen L (2016) A Meta-Analysis on Prehypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease. PLoS ONE 11(6): e0156575. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0156575
Published: June 1, 2016

KidneysBackground: Recent studies have demonstrated that there is an association between prehypertension and an increased risk of end-stage renal disease. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between prehypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This meta-analysis aimed to demonstrate the association between prehypertension and the incidence of CKD and identify the impacts of gender and ethnic differences.
Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (from inception through March 2016) and article reference lists were searched for relevant studies regarding blood pressure and CKD. Blood pressure (BP) measurements were classified as follows: optimal BP (less than 120/80 mmHg), prehypertension (120-139/80-89 mmHg) and hypertension (over 140/90 mmHg). CKD was defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or proteinuria. Two investigators independently extracted the data and assessed the quality of studies enrolled in this meta-analysis using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). We performed the meta-analysis using Stata/SE 12.0 (StataCorp LP). The random-effect models were used in the heterogeneous analyses.
Results: After retrieving data from 4,537 potentially relevant articles, we identified 7 cohort studies including 261,264 subjects, according to the predefined selection criteria. Five studies were conducted in Mongolians from East Asia, and the other two studies were performed in Indo-Europeans from Austria and Iran. The participants ranged in age from 20 to 89 years, and the proportion of females ranged from 27.2% to 63.8%. The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 11 years. Compared with the optimal BP values, prehypertension showed an increased risk of CKD (pooled RR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.13–1.44; P = 0.000; I2 = 77.9%). In the sex-stratified analysis, we found a similar trend in women (pooled RR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.01–1.63; P = 0.039; I2 = 76.1%) but not in men. This effect was observed only in Mongolians from East Asia (pooled RR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.18–1.59; P = 0.000; I2 = 81.3%) and not in Indo-Europeans.
Conclusions: Prehypertension is considered a potential cause of CKD. Gender and ethnic differences are exhibited in this association.


Log in or register for free to continue reading
Register Now For Free Already Registered? Log In
This entry was posted in Nephrology, Primary Care and tagged , .

Post a Comment

You must be logged in to post a comment.