Community Based Case-Control Study of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis among Young Children during 2008-2010 Reveals Vast Genetic Diversity and Increased Prevalence of G9 Strains in Kolkata

Citation: Mullick S, Mukherjee A, Ghosh S, Pazhani GP, Sur D, et al. (2014) Community Based Case-Control Study of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis among Young Children during 2008-2010 Reveals Vast Genetic Diversity and Increased Prevalence of G9 Strains in Kolkata. PLoS ONE 9(11): e112970. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112970
Published: November 17, 2014

Abstract
Rotavirus_ReconstructionBackground: Group A Rotaviruses are a major etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in infants and young children (
Methods: A total number of 3,582 stool samples were collected from an urban slum community in Kolkata, among which 1,568 samples were obtained from children of ≤5 years of age, with moderate to severe diarrhoea and 2,014 samples were collected from age-sex matched healthy neighbourhood controls. Rotavirus positive samples were typed by multiplex semi-nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Circulating strains were phylogenetically analyzed.
Results: Among 1,568 children with diarrhoea, 395 (25.2%), and among 2,014 asymptomatic children, 42 (2%) were rotavirus positive. G1P[8] was identified as the most common strain (32%) followed by G9P[8] (16.9%), G2P[4] (13.5%) and G9P[4] (10.75%). G12 strains with combinations of P[4], P[6] and P[8] comprised 11.9% of total positive strains. The rest (<10%) were rare and uncommon strains like G1P[4], G1P[6], G2P[8] and animal-like strains G4P[6], G6P[14] and G11P[25]. The 42 rotavirus positive samples from asymptomatic children revealed common genotypes like G1, G2 and G9.
Conclusion: This community based case-control study showed increased predominance of genotype G9 in Kolkata. It also confirmed co-circulation of a large number of genetic variants in the community. Asymptomatic rotavirus positive children though low in number can also be a source of dispersal of infection in the community. This study provides background information to the policy makers for implementation of rotavirus vaccines in this region.

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