Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Risk Factors in Kerala, South India: Analysis of a Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

Citation: Harikrishnan S, Sarma S, Sanjay G, Jeemon P, Krishnan MN, Venugopal K, et al. (2018) Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in Kerala, South India: Analysis of a community based cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE 13(3): e0192372.
Published: March 27, 2018

Background: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death and disability in Kerala, India. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of established risk factors for CAD. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of MS and evaluate the association between MS and CAD using a community-based sample population.
Methods: A cross-sectional community based survey was conducted in urban and rural areas of Kerala in 2011. We included 5063 individuals for analysis. Age standardized prevalence of MS, associated diagnoses (hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia) and other potential risk factors were assessed for men and women in both urban and rural locations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were developed to identify participant characteristics that are associated with MS.
Results: After standardization for age and adjustment for sex and urban-rural distribution, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Kerala was 24%, 29% and 33% for the NCEP ATP III, IDF and AHA/NHLBI Harmonization definitions, respectively. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 51 (14) years, and 60% were women. Women had a higher prevalence of MS than men (28% versus 20% for ATP III, p<0.001). Similarly, participants living in urban areas had higher prevalence of MS than their rural counterparts (26% versus 22%, p<0.001). Elevated body mass index, older age, and female sex were associated with MS in an adjusted multivariate model. The propensity for definite CAD was 1.7 times higher in individuals with MS defined based on ATP III criteria compared to those without MS (Adjusted OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.3–2.2, p<0.001).
Conclusions: One of four to one of three adult individuals in Kerala have MS based on different criteria. Higher propensity for CAD in individuals with MS in Kerala calls for urgent steps to prevent and control the burden of metabolic conditions.


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