Prevalence and Correlates of Hypertension in Maharashtra, India: A Multilevel Analysis

Citation: Bhise MD, Patra S (2018) Prevalence and correlates of hypertension in Maharashtra, India: A multilevel analysis. PLoS ONE 13(2): e0191948. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191948
Published: February 5, 2018

Abstract
Background and aim: In the last few decades, the prevalence of hypertension has been drastically increased in India. The present study estimates the current prevalence of hypertension and its correlates in the state of Maharashtra. The variation in the prevalence of hypertension associated with individual-level characteristics is explained at the community and district level.
Methods: Data is used from the recent round of District Level Household & Facility Survey (DLHS-4), 2012–13. The DLHS-4 has used the nationally representative sample, collected through multistage stratified sampling procedure. A similar sampling frame, used in NSSO-2007-08, has been followed. The chi-square test is used to show the significance level of the association between the estimated prevalence of hypertension and its correlates. Multilevel regression analysis is carried out to investigate the effects of individual and community level factors on the prevalence of hypertension.
Results: The overall prevalence of hypertension is 25% in Maharashtra, and a huge variation in the prevalence of hypertension is found across the districts. Dhule, Gadchiroli (with a low HDI rank), Mumbai and Satara (with higher HDI rank) are the districts with the higher (above 30%) prevalence of high blood pressure. The prevalence also significantly varies according to different correlates. The prevalence of high blood pressure is higher among elderly population (40%), among males (28%), in the urban areas (27%) and in the richest wealth quintile (28%). The prevalence is also higher among cigarette smokers (31%), alcohol consumers (30%) and people with obesity (38%) as compared to their counterparts. The results of the multilevel analysis show that the older and obese persons are at four-time higher risk of hypertension. Again, age, sex, marital status, place of residence, wealth status, unhealthy habits (i.e. smoking and alcohol consumption) and BMI are significantly associated with hypertension. The results of VPC statistics show that 14% of hypertension prevalence could be attributed to differences at the community level.
Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension largely varies in the districts of Maharashtra irrespective of their level of socio-economic development (i.e. HDI rank). The variation in the rate of prevalence of hypertension is higher in the community (PSU) level as compared to the variation in the prevalence rate at the district level. Hypertension is attributable to the modifiable factors like risky lifestyle practices.

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This entry was posted in Hypertension, Primary Care, Primary Care Featured 1 and tagged .

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