Acute Corneal Hydrops in Children with Primary Infantile Glaucoma

A Report of 31 Cases over 23 Years at the LVPEI

Citation: Mandal AK (2016) Acute Corneal Hydrops in Children with Primary Infantile Glaucoma: A Report of 31 Cases over 23 Years at the LVPEI. PLoS ONE 11(6): e0156108. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0156108
Published: June 1, 2016

Abstract
Purpose: Relatively little data exist regarding the outcomes of children with primary infantile glaucoma presenting with acute corneal hydrops. The aim of our study was to determine the surgical outcome of children of infantile glaucoma who presented with acute corneal hydrops.
Methods: In total, 38 eyes of 31 consecutive children of infantile glaucoma presented with acute corneal hydrops who underwent primary combined trabeculotomy-trabeculectomy (CTT) by a single surgeon from January 1990 to December 2012 at the LV Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI), a tertiary eye care centre in Southern India were enrolled in this retrospective study. Primary outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP) control (IOP ≤ 16 mmHg under anaesthesia or IOP ≤ 21 mmHg without anaesthesia) and clearance of corneal edema. Secondary outcome measures were visual acuity (VA), corneal diameter, bleb appearance, intraoperative and postoperative complications.
Results: Mean age at presentation was 6.4 months (range, 2–11 months) and seven eyes (23%) had bilateral affliction. At presentation, all eyes (100%) had moderate to severe degree of corneal edema with a mean preoperative IOP of 25.6 ±5.1 mmHg. Postoperatively, the IOP reduced to 12.0 ± 3.8 mmHg (difference = -13.6, 95% CI = -15.7 to -11.5, t = -13.18, p<0.0001), and the percentage reduction in IOP was 53.05%. Preoperatively 83% of the eyes were on antiglaucoma medication, and postoperatively 2 eyes (5.3%) required 1 antiglaucoma medication for control of IOP. Preoperatively, corneal edema was present in all eyes and postoperatively it cleared in all of them. Significant myopic astigmatism was present in 28 eyes (74%), the commonest being compound myopic astigmatism (75%) followed by simple myopic astigmatism (21%). Normal VA (best-corrected VA; BCVA ≥ 20/60) was achieved in 44.4% of the eyes and 22.2% eyes had low vision (BCVA, <20/60 to 20/400). Complete success (IOP control and clearance of corneal oedema) was obtained in 94.7% eyes. There were no significant intraoperative or postoperative complications. Two thirds of the patients showed low, elevated functional filtering bleb. No patient had any bleb leak, blebitis or bleb related endophthalmitis. The median follow-up was 36 months (range 2–228 months).
Conclusions: Primary CTT is safe and effective in controlling IOP, resulting in complete clearance of corneal edema with modest visual improvement in children of infantile glaucoma presenting with acute corneal hydrops. The outcome of the study will have a positive impact on counseling the parents preoperatively.

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