Primary Care Articles

Jugaad Innovations for Rural Surgery

Jugaad Innovation is described as frugal and flexible innovations. It is very important for rural surgeons to learn the Jugaad techniques as they would help them to serve the rural surgical patients better... Read more »

Epidural Steroid Injection for Back Pain: Low Cost Technique for Rural Areas

Epidural steroid injections have been used for low back pain and leg pain since 1952 and often the first line of minimally invasive treatment. However, the benefit is often temporary lasting up to... Read more »

Painless Swelling of the Forefoot and Recurrent Subcutaneous Abscesses of the Lower Leg—Two Distinct Presentations Illustrating the Spectrum of Eumycetoma in a Nonendemic Country

Eumycetoma is a neglected tropical disease that is characterized by chronic progressive local inflammation of subcutaneous tissues with sinus formation and purulent discharge. Although the infection evolves from a small subcutaneous nodule, patients often present late with advanced disease, including... Read more »

A comparison of the diagnostic ability of vessel density and structural measurements of optical coherence tomography in primary open angle glaucoma

Optical coherence tomography angiography is a new technique of non-invasively imaging the blood vessels of the optic nerve head and retina in-vivo. Of the multiple algorithms developed to... Read more »

The Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity in Bangladeshi Adults

Due to nutritional transition, many developing countries are experiencing a shift from underweight to overweight. In 2015, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimated that 795 million people of the... Read more »

Level of inflammatory cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis patients: Correlation with 25-hydroxy vitamin D and reactive oxygen species

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory and autoimmune disease having a prevalence of approximately 0.5–1% of the population of industrialized world... Read more »

Increasing risk of cataract in HCV patients receiving anti-HCV therapy

Cataract, which has an estimated prevalence of 33% in the general population, is the second leading cause of visual impairment and vision loss worldwide. Cataract is associated with increasing Read more »

Glaucoma associated with iridocorneal endothelial syndrome in 203 Indian subjects

The iridocorneal endothelial syndrome is a disease spectrum which includes Chandler syndrome, Progressive iris atrophy and Cogan-Reese syndrome. The clinical variants are distinguished primarily on the basis of the changes in the iris. Progressive or... Read more »

Association of Hip Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition in a Rural Indian Population

Hip bone mineral density is a predictor of overall risk of fractures in later life. Body mass is one of the... Read more »

Oxidative and Anti-Oxidative Stress Markers in Chronic Glaucoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Chronic glaucoma is one of the most frequently established diseases in ophthalmology and represents a growing public health concern, with consequences that lead to blindness... Read more »

Increased Incidence of Thyroid Disease in Patients with Celiac Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder disease characterized by chronic inflammation and villous atrophy of the small intestine. This disease is caused by the ingestion of gluten-containing foods and other environmental factors. As... Read more »

Optical Coherence Tomographic Features and Prognosis of Pneumatic Displacement for Submacular Hemorrhage

Submacular hemorrhage can cause deterioration of visual acuity, and this occurs suddenly and often irreversibly in exudative age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy... Read more »

The Role of Physics and Engineering in Surgery

The Lancet commission on global surgery estimates that about one third of global disease burden is surgical. Many innovations like discovery of anesthesia, antisepsis helped surgeries take... Read more »

A High Level of Soluble CD40L Is Associated with P. aeruginosa Infection in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common inherited diseases resulting in a shortened life span. It affects approximately 70,000 people worldwide. CF is an autosomal recessive disease that is caused by mutations in... Read more »

The Combined Effect of High Ambient Temperature and Antihypertensive Treatment on Renal Function in Hospitalized Elderly Patients

Elderly people (over 65 years old) are more susceptible to environmental influences on their health including dehydration. Since aging is associated with several physiological and pathological processes, advanced age is... Read more »

A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the RASGRF2 Gene Is Associated with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis in Men

Genetic predisposition plays a major role in susceptibility to alcoholism or ethanol-induced organ damage. Many association studies have been conducted to... Read more »

Involvement of Renin-Angiotensin System in Retinopathy of Prematurity – A Possible Target for Therapeutic Intervention

Renin Angiotensin System is the potent mechanism involved in the homeostatic control of arterial pressure, tissue perfusion, and extracellular volume. The key initiator molecule of this system-renin is... Read more »

Outcomes of Cataract Surgery in Urban and Rural Population in the South Indian State of Andhra Pradesh

Cataract remains the leading cause of visual impairment worldwide though proportions vary across regions. Cataract surgery is one of the most... Read more »

Managing Ureteric Calculi with Obstruction and Hydronephrosis in Rural Areas

Ureteric calculi are common and present often to the rural surgeon. The incidence is about 200 per 100,000 population and the trend is that it is increasing... Read more »

Xenobiotic Metabolism and Gut Microbiomes

Advancements in medicine as well as health care, along with increasing awareness of health and hygiene have resulted in a significant rise in the demand and consumption of... Read more »

Prostate Surgeries in Rural Areas

The prostate gland is a male sexual organ that contributes the bulk of secretions during sexual intercourse. It is situated near the junction of the urinary bladder with the urinary passage called... Read more »

What Is New About Appendix Surgeries?

Appendicectomy, also called appendectomy, is one of the most commonly performed surgeries, all over the world. The appendix is a vestigial organ in the human intestine, and it is prone to inflammation. The first successful operation was carried out by Claudius Aymand in 1735 (1). Most people never have any...  Read more »

How Targeted Biopsy Improves Prostate Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment [video]

When William Armstrong's PSA level numbers continually increased over the span of several years, he chose to ignore the numbers and not think about cancer. After seeing Stanford physicians Armstrong realized the possibility of prostate cancer had grown quite real and chose to take an aggressive approach to treat the...  Read more »
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