Pharmacology Articles

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Oral cholera vaccine Shanchol is a low-cost option in India

Shanchol, an Oral Cholera Vaccine (OCV) that is devoid of subunit B, was recently licensed in India in 2009 and WHO-prequalified in 2011. Shanchol, India’s first OCV, is produced by Shantha Biotechnics, and as of May 2012, it was priced at less than Rs 109.(more)

DRUG or DRUG TYPE ARTICLE DRUG CATEGORY
ANALGESICS
NSAIDs (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen) Study finds no increased risk of miscarriage with NSAID use analgesic pain relief
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) Chronic kidney disease underdiagnosed in patients with type 2 diabetes inflammatory control
Therapeutic aspirin (300 mg or less) Risk of bleeding with daily aspirin may offset benefit in low-risk patients cardiovascular disease prevention
ANTI-EMETICS
Ondansetron Anti-nausea agent ondansetron at 32-mg IV dosing may affect heart rhythm regularity chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and post-operative nausea and vomiting
ANTIBIOTICS/ANTI-INFECTIVES
Amikacin Suspected neonatal sepsis requires judicious use of tests, antimicrobials aminoglycoside antibiotic
Amoxicillin Special Report – Pneumonia in Children and in Diabetic Adults: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention antibiotic
Prevention and early diagnosis can counter maternal risk from re-emergence of leptospirosis
Amphotericin B Deoxycholate Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) diagnosis and treatment in India anti-leishmaniasis (anti-kala azar)
Ampicillin Special Report – Pneumonia in Children and in Diabetic Adults: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention antibiotic
Suspected neonatal sepsis requires judicious use of tests, antimicrobials antibiotic
Prevention and early diagnosis can counter maternal risk from re-emergence of leptospirosis
Antibiotics Timing of antibiotics reduces surgical site infections in Cesarean deliveries prophylactic  administration to prevent surgical site infection
Azithromycin Prevention and early diagnosis can counter maternal risk from re-emergence of leptospirosis broad-spectrum antibiotic
Azithromycin found to increase risk of cardiovascular death
Benzylpenicillin Special Report – Pneumonia in Children and in Diabetic Adults: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention antibiotic
Cefazolin Suspected neonatal sepsis requires judicious use of tests, antimicrobials antibiotic
Cefotaxime Suspected neonatal sepsis requires judicious use of tests, antimicrobials cephalosporin antibiotic
Co-trimoxazole Special Report – Pneumonia in Children and in Diabetic Adults: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention antibiotic
Ethambutol Identifying factors that predict meningeal tuberculosis could improve outcomes anti-tuberculosis
Gentamicin Special Report – Pneumonia in Children and in Diabetic Adults: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention antibiotic
Isoniazid Identifying factors that predict meningeal tuberculosis could improve outcomes anti-tuberculosis
Liposomal Amphotericin B Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) diagnosis and treatment in India anti-leishmaniasis (anti-kala azar)
Miltefosine (INN) Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) diagnosis and treatment in India anti-leishmaniasis (anti-kala azar)
Paromomycin (PM) Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) diagnosis and treatment in India anti-leishmaniasis (anti-kala azar)
Penicillin Suspected neonatal sepsis requires judicious use of tests, antimicrobials antibiotic
Prevention and early diagnosis can counter maternal risk from re-emergence of leptospirosis
Pyrazinamide Identifying factors that predict meningeal tuberculosis could improve outcomes anti-tuberculosis
Rifampicin Identifying factors that predict meningeal tuberculosis could improve outcomes anti-tuberculosis
Sodium Stibogluconate (SSG) Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) diagnosis and treatment in India anti-leishmaniasis (anti-kala azar)
ANTICOAGULANTS
Anti-Xa New-generation anticoagulant agents pose risks in treatment of acute coronary syndromes Activated Xa antagonist (new generation oral anticoagulant)
Apixaban
(investigational as of August 2012)
Apixaban reduces stroke rates in atrial fibrillation patients with previous stroke or TIA oral anticoagulant
Aspirin Clopidogrel plus aspirin can cause more harm than good in small subcortical stroke prevention anticoagulant
Clopidogrel Clopidogrel plus aspirin can cause more harm than good in small subcortical stroke prevention anticoagulant
Direct thrombin inhibitors New-generation anticoagulant agents pose risks in treatment of acute coronary syndromes New-generation oral anticoagulant
Plavix Clopidogrel plus aspirin can cause more harm than good in small subcortical stroke prevention anticoagulant
Warfarin Apixaban reduces stroke rates in atrial fibrillation patients with previous stroke or TIA oral anticoagulant
ANTIDIABETES
Exenatide Exenatide better than glimepiride as second option after metformin in type 2 diabetes incretin mimetic (subcutaneous injection) for  type 2 diabetes
Glibenclamide Polyphenol resveratrol may boost effect of oral hypoglycemic agents sulfonylurea
Glimepiride Exenatide better than glimepiride as second option after metformin in type 2 diabetes sulfonylurea oral agent to treat type 2 diabetes
Glyburide Early intensive therapy in type 2 diabetes may preserve beta cell function sulfonylurea
Insulin-basal Early intensive therapy in type 2 diabetes may preserve beta cell function glucose control
Many patients with type 2 diabetes take basal insulin incorrectly, self-manage hypoglycemia 
Early basal insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes achieves glycemic control better than sitagliptin, but with greater risk of hypoglycemia
Metformin Early intensive therapy in type 2 diabetes may preserve beta cell function biguanide oral agent to treat type 2 diabetes
Polyphenol resveratrol may boost effect of oral hypoglycemic agents
Exenatide better than glimepiride as second option after metformin in type 2 diabetes
Pioglitazone Early intensive therapy in type 2 diabetes may preserve beta cell function thiazolidinedione
Sitagliptin Early basal insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes achieves glycemic control better than sitagliptin, but with greater risk of hypoglycemia dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor for glucose-lowering in type 2 diabetes
ANTIHISTAMINES
Cetirizine Non-sedating antihistamines recommended to treat urticaria nonsedating (second generation) antihistamines
Desloratadine Non-sedating antihistamines recommended to treat urticaria nonsedating (second generation) antihistamines
Ebastine Non-sedating antihistamines recommended to treat urticaria nonsedating (second generation) antihistamines
Fexofenadine Non-sedating antihistamines recommended to treat urticaria nonsedating (second generation) antihistamines
Levocetirizine Non-sedating antihistamines recommended to treat urticaria nonsedating (second generation) antihistamines
Loratadine Non-sedating antihistamines recommended to treat urticaria nonsedating (second generation) antihistamines
Mizolastine Non-sedating antihistamines recommended to treat urticaria nonsedating (second generation) antihistamines
Olapatadine Non-sedating antihistamines recommended to treat urticaria nonsedating (second generation) antihistamines
Rupatadine Non-sedating antihistamines recommended to treat urticaria nonsedating (second generation) antihistamines
ANTIHYPERTENSIVES
ACE-inhibitors Chronic kidney disease underdiagnosed in patients with type 2 diabetes blood pressure control
Elderly hypertensive patients with cardiovascular disease may benefit from combination antihypertensive therapy ACE-I
Amlodipine Polypill may help prevent cardiovascular disease in patients 50 years and older calcium channel blocker - hypertension and angina
Study results make the case for quick titration of antihypertensive drugs to lower blood pressure
Angiotensin-receptor blockers Chronic kidney disease underdiagnosed in patients with type 2 diabetes angiotensin receptor blocker
Elderly hypertensive patients with cardiovascular disease may benefit from combination antihypertensive therapy
Beta Blockers Blanket prescribing of beta-blockers to all patients with CAD or at risk of CAD does not reduce cardiovascular risk beta-adrenergic blocking agents
Beta blockers and cardiac resynchronization show greatest survival benefit for patients with heart failure
Chlorthalidone Chlorthalidone treatment for systolic hypertension improves life expectancy diuretic
Hydrochlorothiazide Polypill may help prevent cardiovascular disease in patients 50 years and older diuretic/blood pressure control
Losartan Polypill may help prevent cardiovascular disease in patients 50 years and older angiotensin II receptor blocker - hypertension, stroke prevention, congestive heart failure
CHEMOTHERAPY AGENTS
Praziquantel Study highlights public health, economic impact of food-borne trematodiases trematodiases
Triclabendazole Study highlights public health, economic impact of food-borne trematodiases trematodiases
DYSLIPIDEMIA
Atorvastatin Statin use in postmenopausal women increases risk of type 2 diabetes, but benefits may still outweigh risks statin: cholestrol-lowering
Fluvastatin Statin use in postmenopausal women increases risk of type 2 diabetes, but benefits may still outweigh risks statin: cholestrol-lowering
Lovastatin Statin use in postmenopausal women increases risk of type 2 diabetes, but benefits may still outweigh risks statin: cholestrol-lowering
Pravastatin Statin use in postmenopausal women increases risk of type 2 diabetes, but benefits may still outweigh risks statin: cholestrol-lowering
Rosuvastatin Statin benefits in primary prevention outweigh risk of diabetes statin
Galectin-3 identifies subset of heart failure patients who can benefit from a statin
Simvastatin Statin use in postmenopausal women increases risk of type 2 diabetes, but benefits may still outweigh risks statin: cholestrol-lowering
Polypill may help prevent cardiovascular disease in patients 50 years and older
Statins (all) Statin use may have a protective effect against pneumonia mortality lipid-lowering
Statins may slow knee OA, but no effect seen at the hip
HORMONAL
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) Menopausal hormone replacement therapy reduces fractures but increases risks for other conditions menopausal hormone replacement
NEUROLOGICAL AGENTS
Minocycline Antibiotics for treating acute ischemic stroke—a novel idea? tetracycline antibiotic: acute ischemic stroke prevention (investigational)
OSTEOPOROSIS
Bisphosphonates Bisphosphonates linked to atypical femoral fracture preventing or slowing the loss of bone mass in postmenopausal women
Long-term bisphosphonate therapy of unproven benefit in fracture prevention
VACCINES
Rotavirus vaccines An update on the current and future management of rotavirus in India prevention of rotavirus
Could a rotavirus vaccine based on genotypes prevalent in India be on the horizon?
Shanchol Oral cholera vaccine Shanchol is a low-cost option in India prevention of cholera

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