Evaluating the Impact of Breastfeeding on Rotavirus Antigenemia and Disease Severity in Indian Children

Citation: Das S, Sahoo GC, Das P, Singh UK, Jaiswal AK, Singh P, et al. (2016) Evaluating the Impact of Breastfeeding on Rotavirus Antigenemia and Disease Severity in Indian Children. PLoS ONE 11(2): e0146243. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0146243
Published: February 1, 2016

Abstract
Objectives: To evaluate the contribution of breastfeeding to Rotavirus (RV)-induced antigenemia and/or RNAemia and disease severity in Indian children (<2 yrs age).
Methods: Paired stool and serum samples were collected from (a) hospitalized infants with diarrhea (n = 145) and (b) healthy control infants without diarrhea (n = 28). Stool RV-antigen was screened in both groups by commercial rapid-test and enzyme immunoassay. The disease severity was scored and real-time-PCR was used for viral-load estimation. Serum was evaluated for RV-antigenemia by EIA and RV-RNAemia by RT-PCR. Data was stratified by age-group and breastfeeding status and compared.
Results: Presence of RV-antigenemia and RV-RNAemia was positively related with presence of RV in stool. Disease severity and stool viral-load was significantly associated with RV-antigenemia[(r = 0.74; CI:0.66 to 0.84; P<0.0001,R2 = 0.59) and (r = -0.55; CI:-0.68 to -0.39; P<0.0001,R2 = 0.31) respectively], but not with RV-RNAemia. There was significant reduction in RV-antigenemiarate in the breast-fed group compared to non-breastfed infants, especially in 0–6 month age group (P<0.001). Non-breastfed infants were at risk for RV-antigenemia with severe disease manifestations in form of high Vesikari scores correlating with high fever, more vomiting episodes and dehydration.
Conclusion: RV-antigenemia was common in nonbreastfed children with severe RV-diarrhea and correlated with stool RV-load and disease severity.

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