Low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in non-urban pregnant women in Vellore, S. India

Citation: Vidwan NK, Regi A, Steinhoff M, Huppert JS, Staat MA, et al. (2012) Low Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Non-Urban Pregnant Women in Vellore, S. India. PLoS ONE 7(5): e34794. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034794
Published: May 2, 2012

Abstract Pap_smear_showing_clamydia
Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in pregnant women and the rate of transmission of CT to infants.
Methods: Pregnant women (≥28 weeks gestation) in Vellore, South India were approached for enrollment from April 2009 to January 2010. After informed consent was obtained, women completed a socio-demographic, prenatal, and sexual history questionnaire. Endocervical samples collected at delivery were examined for CT by a rapid enzyme test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Neonatal nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs were collected for NAAT testing. Results: Overall, 1198 women were enrolled and 799 (67%) endocervical samples were collected at birth. Analyses were completed on 784 participants with available rapid and NAAT results. The mean age of women was 25.8 years (range 18–39 yrs) and 22% (95% CI: 19.7–24.4%) were primigravida. All women enrolled were married; one reported >one sexual partner; and six reported prior STI. We found 71 positive rapid CT tests and 1/784 (0.1%; 95% CI: 0–0.38%) true positive CT infection using NAAT.
Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the largest study on CT prevalence amongst healthy pregnant mothers in southern India, and it documents a very low prevalence with NAAT. Many false positive results were noted using the rapid test. These data suggest that universal CT screening is not indicated in this population.
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