Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness Among the Women Beneficiaries of Selected Rural Primary Health Centers of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India

Citation: Akshaya KM, Shivalli S (2017) Birth preparedness and complication readiness among the women beneficiaries of selected rural primary health centers of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India. PLoS ONE12(8): e0183739. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183739
Published: August 24, 2017

Abstract
Introduction: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) is a strategy to promote timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care during childbirth. According to World Health Organization, BPCR should be a key component of focused antenatal care. Dakshina Kannada, a coastal district of Karnataka state, is categorized as a high-performing district (institutional delivery rate >25%) under the National Rural Health Mission. However, a substantial proportion of women in the district experience complications during pregnancy (58.3%), childbirth (45.7%), and postnatal (17.4%) period. There is a paucity of data on BPCR practice and the factors associated with it in the district. Exploring this would be of great use in the evidence-based fine-tuning of ongoing maternal and child health interventions.
Objective: To assess BPCR practice and the factors associated with it among the beneficiaries of two rural Primary Health Centers (PHCs) of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka, India.
Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 217 pregnant (>28 weeks of gestation) and recently delivered (in the last 6 months) women in two randomly selected PHCs from June -September 2013. Exit interviews were conducted using a pre-designed semi-structured interview schedule. Information regarding socio-demographic profile, obstetric variables, and knowledge of key danger signs was collected. BPCR included information on five key components: identified the place of delivery, saved money to pay for expenses, mode of transport identified, identified a birth companion, and arranged a blood donor if the need arises. In this study, a woman who recalled at least two key danger signs in each of the three phases, i.e., pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum (total six) was considered as knowledgeable on key danger signs. Optimal BPCR practice was defined as following at least three out of five key components of BPCR.
Outcome measures: Proportion, Odds ratio, and adjusted Odds ratio (adj OR) for optimal BPCR practice.
Results: A total of 184 women completed the exit interview (mean age: 26.9±3.9 years). Optimal BPCR practice was observed in 79.3% (95% CI: 73.5–85.2%) of the women. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age >26 years (adj OR = 2.97; 95%CI: 1.15–7.7), economic status of above poverty line (adj OR = 4.3; 95%CI: 1.12–16.5), awareness of minimum two key danger signs in each of the three phases, i.e., pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum (adj OR = 3.98; 95%CI: 1.4–11.1), preference to private health sector for antenatal care/delivery (adj OR = 2.9; 95%CI: 1.1–8.01), and woman’s discussion about the BPCR with her family members (adj OR = 3.4; 95%CI: 1.1–10.4) as the significant factors associated with optimal BPCR practice.
Conclusion: In this study population, BPCR practice was better than other studies reported from India. Healthcare workers at the grassroots should be encouraged to involve women’s family members while explaining BPCR and key danger signs with a special emphasis on young (<26 years) and economically poor women. Ensuring a reinforcing discussion between woman and her family members may further enhance the BPCR practice.

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