Profile of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in Punjab, Northern India

Results of a State-Wide STEPS Survey

Citation: Thakur JS, Jeet G, Pal A, Singh S, Singh A, Deepti SS, et al. (2016) Profile of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in Punjab, Northern India: Results of a State-Wide STEPS Survey. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0157705. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157705
Published: July 7, 2016

Abstract
India_PB.svgBackground: Efforts to assess the burden of non-communicable diseases risk factors has improved in low and middle-income countries after political declaration of UN High Level Meeting on NCDs. However, lack of reliable estimates of risk factors distribution are leading to delay in implementation of evidence based interventions in states of India.
Methods: A STEPS Survey, comprising all the three steps for assessment of risk factors of NCDs, was conducted in Punjab state during 2014–15. A statewide multistage sample of 5,127 residents, aged 18–69 years, was taken. STEPS questionnaire version 3.1 was used to collect information on behavioral risk factors, followed by physical measurements and blood and urine sampling for biochemical profile.
Results: Tobacco and alcohol consumption were observed in 11.3% (20% men and 0.9% women) and 15% (27% men and 0.3% women) of the population, respectively. Low levels of physical activity were recorded among 31% (95% CI: 26.7–35.5) of the participants. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28.6% (95% CI: 26.3–30.9) and 12.8% (95% CI: 11.2–14.4) respectively. Central obesity was higher among women (69.3%, 95% CI: 66.5–72.0) than men (49.5%, 95% CI: 45.3–53.7). Prevalence of hypertension in population was 40.1% (95% CI: 37.3–43.0). The mean sodium intake in grams per day for the population was 7.4 gms (95% CI: 7.2–7.7). The prevalence of diabetes (hyperglycemia), hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.7–16.8), 21.6% (95% CI: 18.5–25.1) and 16.1% (95% CI: 13.1–19.2), respectively. In addition, 7% of the population aged 40–69 years had a cardiovascular risk of ≥ 30% over a period of next 10 years.
Conclusion: We report high prevalence of risk factors of chronic non-communicable diseases among adults in Punjab. There is an urgent need to implement population, individual and programme wide prevention and control interventions to lower the serious consequences of NCDs.

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