Encapsulation of Bacteriophage in Liposome Accentuates Its Entry in to Macrophage and Shields It from Neutralizing Antibodies

Citation: Singla S, Harjai K, Katare OP, Chhibber S (2016) Encapsulation of Bacteriophage in Liposome Accentuates Its Entry in to Macrophage and Shields It from Neutralizing Antibodies. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0153777. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153777
Published: April 26, 2016

Abstract
Phage therapy has been a centre of attraction for biomedical scientists to treat infections caused by drug resistant strains. However, ability of phage to act only on extracellular bacteria and probability of interference by anti-phage antibodies in vivo is considered as a important limitation of bacteriophage therapy. To overcome these hurdles, liposome were used as delivery vehicle for phage in this study. Anti-phage antibodies were raised in mice and pooled serum was evaluated for its ability to neutralize free and liposome entrapped phage. Further, ability of phage and liposome-entrapped phage to enter mouse peritoneal macrophages and kill intracellular Klebsiella pneumoniae was compared. Also, an attempt to compare the efficacy of free phage and liposome entrapped phage, alone or in conjunction with amikacin in eradicating mature biofilm was made. The entrapment of phage in liposome provided 100% protection to phage from neutralizing antibody. On the contrary un-entrapped phage got neutralized within 3 h of its interaction with antibody. Compared to the inability of free phage to enter macrophages, the liposome were able to deliver entrapped phage inside macrophages and cause 94.6% killing of intracellular K. pneumoniae. Liposome entrapped phage showed synergistic activity along with amikacin to eradicate mature biofilm of K. pneumoniae. Our study reinforces the growing interest in using phage therapy as a means of targeting multidrug resistant bacterial infections as liposome entrapment of phage makes them highly effective in vitro as well as in vivo by overcoming the majority of the hurdles related to clinical use of phage.

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