Control of Aedes aegypti Breeding: A Novel Intervention for Prevention and Control of Dengue in an Endemic Zone of Delhi, India

Citation: Nagpal BN, Gupta SK, Shamim A, Vikram K, Srivastava A, Tuli NR, et al. (2016) Control of Aedes aegypti Breeding: A Novel Intervention for Prevention and Control of Dengue in an Endemic Zone of Delhi, India. PLoS ONE 11(12): e0166768. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166768
Published: December 5, 2016

Abstract
Background and objective: The study is based on hypothesis that whether continuous entomological surveillance of Ae. aegypti and simultaneous appropriate interventions in key containers during non-transmission (December–May) months would have any impact on breeding of Aedes and dengue cases during the following transmission months (June–November). The impact of the surveillance and intervention measures undertaken during non-transmission months were assessed by entomological indicators namely container index (CI), house index (HI), pupal index (PI) and breteau index (BI).
Methods: A total of 28 localities of West Zone of Delhi with persistent dengue endemicity were selected for the study. Out of these localities, 20 were included in study group while other 8 localities were in control group. IEC and various Aedes breeding control activities were carried out in study group in both non-transmission and transmission season whereas control group did not have any such interventions during non-transmission months as per guidelines of MCD. These activities were undertaken by a team of investigators from NIMR and SDMC, Delhi. In control group, investigators from NIMR carried out surveillance activity to monitor the breeding of Aedes mosquito in localities.
Results: Comparison of baseline data revealed that all indices in control and study group of localities were comparable and statistically non-significant (p>0.05). In both study and control groups, indices were calculated after pooling data on seasonal basis, i.e., transmission and non-transmission months for both years. The test of significance conducted on all the four indices, i.e., HI, PI, CI, and BI, revealed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the study group and control group during transmission and non-transmission months except in HI. Due to consistent intervention measures undertaken in non-transmission months in study group, reduction in CI, HI, BI and PI was observed 63%, 62%, 64% and 99% respectively during transmission months as compared to control group where increase of 59%, 102%, 73% and 71% respectively. As a result of reduction in larval indices, no dengue case (except one NS1) was observed in study group, whereas 38 dengue cases were observed in control group.
Conclusion: Through this pilot study, it is concluded that proper intervention in non-transmission season reduces vector density and subsequently dengue cases in transmission season.

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