Prevalence and Pattern of Co Morbidity Among Type 2 Diabetics Attending Urban Primary Healthcare Centers at Bhubaneswar (India)

Citation: Pati S, Schellevis FG (2017) Prevalence and pattern of co morbidity among type2 diabetics attending urban primary healthcare centers at Bhubaneswar (India). PLoS ONE12(8): e0181661. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181661
Published: August 25, 2017

Abstract
Objective: India has the second largest diabetic population in the world. The chronic nature of the disease and high prevalence of co-existing chronic medical conditions or “co morbidities” makes diabetes management complex for the patient and for health care providers. Hence a strong need was felt to explore the problem of co morbidity among diabetics and its dimensions in primary health care practices.
Method: This cross sectional survey was carried out on 912 type 2 diabetes patients attending different urban primary health care facilities at Bhubaneswar. Data regarding existence of co morbidity and demographical details were elicited by a predesigned, pretested questionnaire “Diabetes Co morbidity Evaluation Tool in Primary Care (DCET- PC)”. Statistical analyses were done using STATA.
Results: Overall 84% had one ormore than one comorbid condition. The most frequent co morbid conditions were hypertension [62%], acid peptic disease [28%], chronic back ache [22%] and osteoarthritis [21%]. The median number of co morbid conditions among both males and females is 2[IQR = 2]. The range of the number of co morbid conditions was wider among males [0–14] than females [0–6]. The number of co morbidities was highest in the age group > = 60 across both sexes. Most of the male patients below 40 years of age had either single [53%] or three co morbidities [11%] whereas among female patients of the same age group single [40%] or two co morbidities [22%] were more predominantly present. Age was found to be a strong independent predictor for diabetes co morbidity. The odds of having co morbidity among people above poverty line and schedule caste were found to be[OR = 3.50; 95%CI 1.85–6.62]and [OR = 2.46; CI 95%1.16–5.25] respectively. Odds were increased for retired status [OR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.01–3.91] and obesity [OR = 3.96; 95%CI 1.01–15.76].
Conclusion: The results show a high prevalence of co morbidities in patients with type 2 diabetes attending urban primary health care facilities. Hypertension, acid peptic disease, chronic back ache and arthritis being the most common, strategies need to be designed taking into account the multiple demands of co morbidities.

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