Nonenzymatic Glycosylation of Human Serum Albumin and Its Effect on Antibodies Profile in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Citation: Raghav A, Ahmad J, Alam K (2017) Nonenzymatic glycosylation of human serum albumin and its effect on antibodies profile in patients with diabetes mellitus. PLoS ONE 12(5): e0176970. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176970
Published: May 17, 2017

Abstract
Background: Albumin glycation and subsequent formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) correlate with diabetes and associated complications.
Methods: Human Serum Albumin (HSA) was modified with D-glucose for a 40 day period under sterile conditions at 37°C. Modified samples along with native HSA (unmodified) were analyzed for structural modifications by UV and fluorescence, FTIR, Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) and X–ray crystallography. New-Zealand white female rabbits immunized with AGEs, represent auto-antibodies formation as assessed by competitive and direct binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Neo-epitopesagainst In-vitro formed AGEs were characterized in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (n = 50), type 1 (n = 50), gestational diabetes (n = 50) and type 2 with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with eGFR level 60–89 mL/min (n = 50) from serum direct binding ELISA.
Results: Glycated-HSA showed amarked increase in hyperchromicity of 65.82%,71.98%, 73.62% and 76.63% at λ280 nm along with anincreasein fluorescence intensity of 65.82%, 71.98%, 73.62% and 76.63% in glycated-HSA compared to native. FTIR results showed theshifting of Amide I peak from 1656 cm_1 to 1659 cm_1 and Amide II peak from 1554 cm_1 to 1564 cm_1 in glycated-HSA, with anew peak appearance of carbonyl group at 1737 cm-1. LCMS chromatogram of glycated-HSA showed thepresence of carboxymethyl lysine (CML) at 279.1 m/z. Immunological analysis showed high antibody titre>1:12,800 in theserum of rabbits immunized with glycated-HSA (modified with 400 mg/dL glucose) and inhibition of 84.65% at anantigen concentration of 20μg/mL. Maximum serum auto-antibody titre was found in T2DM (0.517±0.086), T1DM (0.108±0.092), GDM (0.611±0.041) and T2DM+CKD (0.096±0.25) patients immunized with glycated-HSA (modified with 400 mg/dL glucose).
Conclusions: Non-enzymatic glycosylation of HSA manifests immunological complications in diabetes mellitus due to change in its structure that enhances neo-epitopes generation.

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