High Prevalence of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Young Urban Sri-Lankan Population

Citation: Wijesuriya M, Gulliford M, Charlton J, Vasantharaja L, Viberti G, et al. (2012) High Prevalence of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in a Young Urban Sri-Lankan Population. PLoS ONE 7(2): e31309. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031309
Published: February 13, 2012

Abstract
Background: South-Asian's are predisposed to early onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk-factors in young Sri-Lankans is unknown.
Methodology/Principal Findings: To determine by questionnaire and anthropometry the prevalence of first degree family history (FH) of T2DM, physical inactivity, raised waist circumference (WC) and raised body mass index (BMI) in a representative healthy urban population selected by cluster sampling. Those with ≥2 risk-factors were evaluated for metabolic syndrome (MS) and recruited for an intervention trial. Of 23,296 participants screened, 22,507 (53% Female) were eligible [8,497 aged 10–14 yrs, 4,763 aged 15–19 yrs and 9,247 aged 20–40 yrs]. 51% had none of the 4 risk-factors, 26% 1 risk-factor and 23% (5,163) ≥2 risk-factors of whom 4,532 were assessed for MS. Raised BMI was noted in 19.7% aged 10–14 yrs, 15.3% between 15–19 yrs, and between 20–40 yrs, 27.4% of males vs. 21.8% of females p<0.001. Prevalence of raised WC was greater in females for each age group: 42.7% vs. 32.1%; 28.1% vs. 16.1%; 34.5% vs. 25.7% (p<0.05 for all) as was physical inactivity: 39.9% vs. 14.5%; 51.7% vs. 20.0%; 62.7% vs. 41.3% which rose in both sexes with age (p<0.05 for all). FH of T2DM was present in 26.2%. In 4532 (50% Conclusions/Significance: There is a high prevalence of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk-factors in young urban Sri-Lankans with significant gender differences. A primary prevention intervention trial is ongoing in this cohort. Clinical Trial Registration Number SLCTR/2008/World Health Organization (WHO) international clinical trial registry platform.
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