Effect of glycemic control and type of diabetes treatment on unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes among people with TB-Diabetes: A systematic review

Citation: Shewade HD, Jeyashree K, Mahajan P, Shah AN, Kirubakaran R, Rao R, et al. (2017) Effect of glycemic control and type of diabetes treatment on unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes among people with TB-Diabetes: A systematic review. PLoS ONE 12(10): e0186697. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0186697
Published: October 23, 2017

Background: Stringent glycemic control by using insulin as a replacement or in addition to oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) has been recommended for people with tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus (TB-DM). This systematic review (PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016039101) analyses whether this improves TB treatment outcomes.
Objectives: Among people with drug-susceptible TB and DM on anti-TB treatment, to determine the effect of i) glycemic control (stringent or less stringent) compared to poor glycemic control and ii) insulin (only or with OHAs) compared to ‘OHAs only’ on unsuccessful TB treatment outcome(s). We looked for unfavourable TB treatment outcomes at the end of intensive phase and/or end of TB treatment (minimum six months and maximum 12 months follow up). Secondary outcomes were development of MDR-TB during the course of treatment, recurrence after 6 months and/or after 1 year post successful treatment completion and development of adverse events related to glucose lowering treatment (including hypoglycemic episodes).
Methods: All interventional studies (with comparison arm) and cohort studies on people with TB-DM on anti-TB treatment reporting glycemic control, DM treatment details and TB treatment outcomes were eligible. We searched electronic databases (EMBASE, PubMed, Google Scholar) and grey literature between 1996 and April 2017. Screening, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were done independently by two investigators and recourse to a third investigator, for resolution of differences.
Results: After removal of duplicates from 2326 identified articles, 2054 underwent title and abstract screening. Following full text screening of 56 articles, nine cohort studies were included. Considering high methodological and clinical heterogeneity, we decided to report the results qualitatively and not perform a meta-analysis. Eight studies dealt with glycemic control, of which only two were free of the risk of bias (with confounder-adjusted measures of effect). An Indian study reported 30% fewer unsuccessful treatment outcomes (aOR (0.95 CI): 0.72 (0.64−0.81)) and 2.8 times higher odds of ‘no recurrence’ (aOR (0.95 CI): 2.83 (2.60−2.92)) among patients with optimal glycemic control at baseline. A Peruvian study reported faster culture conversion among those with glycemic control (aHR (0.95 CI): 2.2 (1.1,4)). Two poor quality studies reported the effect of insulin on TB treatment outcomes.
Conclusion: We identified few studies that were free of the risk of bias. There were limited data and inconsistent findings among available studies. We recommend robustly designed and analyzed studies including randomized controlled trials on the effect of glucose lowering treatment options on TB treatment outcomes.


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