Monthly Archives: April 2014

Regional Variation in Pig Farmer Awareness and Actions Regarding Japanese Encephalitis in Nepal

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most important viral encephalitis in Nepal and Asia [1], [2]. It is a mosquito borne disease caused by a flavivirus that cycles between birds, pigs and people [3]. Its distribution has, in recent years expanded and is expected to spread more widely geographically with anticipated changes in climate, land use (particularly rice and pig farming and urbanization), and access to…

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Mutation Profiling of the Hepatitis B Virus Strains Circulating in North Indian Population

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common cause of chronic hepatitis, Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) globally [1], [2]. HBV is a DNA Virus with 3200 nucleotides and has four Open Reading Frames (ORFs) encoding for hepatitis B surface or envelope proteins, core peptide, X peptide and DNA-polymerase enzyme. It replicates through…

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Molecular Characterization of HBV Strains Circulating among the Treatment-Naive HIV/HBV Co-Infected Patients of Eastern India

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global health problem in spite of an effective vaccine, with approximately 400 million people being chronically infected with HBV worldwide [1]. HBV, the archetype member of the Hepadnaviridae family, is a partially double stranded DNA virus of approximately…

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Child Feces Disposal Practices in Rural Orissa

Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target 7c includes the reduction by half of the proportion of the population without sustainable access to basic sanitation by 2015 [1]. This MDG is far off track from being met; indeed 2.5 billion people were still without access to improved sanitation by the end of 2011 [2]. In India, sanitation represents a particular challenge, as…

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Make Your Medical Product Ideas Come to Life: Inventor’s Syndrome

Can you diagnose these symptoms? The subject has conceived of a novel medical innovation that he believes is so important it will soon become a staple device in every hospital and clinic. He thinks its features and benefits solve an important problem facing physicians and their patients. However, our subject… 

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Estimating Diarrheal Illness and Deaths Attributable to Shigellae and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli among Older Children, Adolescents, and Adults in South Asia and Africa

Although frequently underappreciated as a significant health problem, recent publications have highlighted the potential importance of diarrhea as a continuing cause of morbidity and mortality among older children, adolescents and adults living in low- and middle-income countries [1], [2]. Similar to children under five years of age, diarrhea incidence and mortality estimates among…

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Mass Vaccination with a New, Less Expensive Oral Cholera Vaccine Using Public Health Infrastructure in India

Cholera continues to pose a public health threat in resource- poor countries. Estimates suggest that 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera, with 2.8 million cases and 91,000 deaths occurring annually in cholera-endemic countries worldwide [1]. The devastating and prolonged outbreaks of cholera in…

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